In principle, most of the inputs and outputs should be self-explanatory.
Cookies are used by beamcalc to pass on user input from one tab to the other.
Please note, that some browsers in some configurations use either commas or dots as decimal separators. Try using the respective other, if your calculations fail unexpectedly.
- Ion mass in atomic mass units (amu). The loupe button (🔎) directs you to a ion picker dialogue using either from tabulated values (AMDC AME 2016) or using Weizsäckers mass formula for unknown and exotic Z/N combinations.
- Ecool energy
- The equivalent energy of electrons at cooling condition, i.e.
<vi> = <ve>. Clicking on the link solves the electron-tab including spacecharge corrections for electron cooling at the present ion energy.
- Revolution frequency of ions circulating in the ring on nominal orbit.
- Momentum-compaction factor.
- Dispersion of the revolution frequency.
- max. particles
- Maximum number of particles at the space charge limit for coasting and cooled beam.
- Tuneshift due to space charge, per μA and assuming cooled beam with emittance of 1 π·mm·mrad.
- keep fixed / set free
- Keep the energy of the electrons fixed and vary the acceleration potential or set the electron energy free and keep the acceleration potential fixed.
- Ion energy
- The ion energy at cooling condition, i.e.
<vi> = <ve>.
Clicking on the link matches the ion-tab to the present electron energy.
Please set up the ion- and electron-tabs for your specific ion beam or the calculations in the lifetime-tab may be meaningless.
Several simplifications are applied to the code to keep the calculations tractable and responsive. They are meant as rule-of-thumb guide, not as definitive answer to all pressing problems of humanity. If you need exact results, please consult your friendly theoretician. Most of all, for now all calculations are performed assuming beams of atomic ions, i.e. any kind of nuclear or molecular physics are ignored from estimations of cross sections and lifetimes.
- e-1-Lifetime of ion beam through charge exchange (Schlachter et al., 1983).
- ... through stripping on residual gas (Shevelko et al., 2009).
- ... through Rutherford scattering.
- ... through radiative recombination at cooling conditions. Calculated from Bethe-Salpeter formula.